Symptoms and signs of prostate cancer
Often, prostate cancer may remain symptomless until quite late in the disease process when the volume of the growth exerts pressure on the urethra and the man finds slowing of urinary stream. If the sphincter is distorted then hesitancy in starting to urinate and frequency of “call to urinate” occurs. Less commonly, haematuria (blood in the urine) occurs. Problematic to the clinician is the fact that slowing of the urinary stream and hesitancy are also the main symptoms of benign hypertrophy, which affects the normal ageing process (and may also be associated with a mild rise in blood PSA levels.). When the doctor digitally feels the prostate (per rectum) he may feel an abnormally hard are within the prostate. Much later if the disease has spread beyond the prostate, the patient may complain of bone pain (due to bone metastases) or swollen legs (due to pelvic node metastases).
Symptoms such as blood in the urine are extremely unusual, but may occur in later stages of the illness.